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It has been observed that the implementation of OI process is at its embryonic stage in all case firms and that this occurs along with investments in closed innovation, meaning that OI results cannot be explored at this stage of the implementation, as there is a long way to consolidate these practices in the case firms studied.

The catalysing process of innovation that relies on collaboration from external organizations is a subject that has been widely explored in the literature.

The research is qualitative in nature and employs a descriptive approach.

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In any case, the metrics that put emphasis on capabilities and competencies do not guarantee present or future results from innovation.

Likewise, the assessment of these results does not guarantee that the company is innovative or that it can assure future results relating to innovation, because it cannot be concluded that current gains result solely from a favourable situation.

Figueiredo (2009) presents two sets of metrics: an approach based on the construction of national indicators, and measurement strategy, based on types and levels of technological capacity.

This second approach involves both production activities and innovation.

Figure 1 shows the processes (i) Outside-in (ideas and technology, license-in, acquisition of products, coranding), relating to the internalization of knowledge and related resources; and (ii) Inside-out (license-out, offering technology to the market, spin outs), related to the transfer of knowledge and R&D results for external commercialization.